Gianfranco Pasquino, professor of political science, University of Bologna
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In two successive referendums, the French and the Dutch have rejected the European Union Constitution. However, more than ten other member States have ratified, either by a parliamentary vote or through a referendum, the same Constitution. Therefore, it would be inappropriate to say that the European Union has come to a standstill. On the other hand, it would be as much foolish to deny that major institutional and political problems have come to the surface. Which are the problems and which are the solutions being entertained? Will the European Union be again, and how soon, in the position to proceed to a deeper unification?